Lesson 1

Consonant gradiation

In general, a single k is deleted.

In general, a single p is replaced by v

In general, a single t is deleted




In Meänkieli the personal pronoun changes the conjugations

The personal pronouns are:

Mie - i, me

sie - you

hä(ä)n - he,she, it

met - we

tet - you ( plural )

het = they


Lets use the word "tehhä" as an example ( to make )

mie tehen = i make

sie tehet = you make

hä(ä)n tekkee = he,she,it makes

Met teemä = we make

tet teettä = you make

het tekkeevä(t) = they make


Word "olla" ( to be )

Mie olen = i am

sie olet = you are

hä(ä)n o(o)n = he,she it is

met olema = we are

Tet oletta = you are

Het o(o)n = they are


In the spoken version, sometimes the personal pronoun and the verb are united into 1 word.

Molen = i am

Solet = you are

Son = he,she,it is

Molema = we are

Toletta = you are

Non = they are


The word "syyä" to eat

Mie syön = i eat

Sie syöt = you eat

Hä(ä)n syö = he,she eats

mey syömä = we eat

Tet syöttä = you eat

Het syövä(t) = they eat


Meänkieli has noun cases like Finnish.

Here are the cases


Illative case

with the illative case it is somewhat irregular. Usualy the words end in "an, än or en" but it does not only change the ending. With the illative case a letter "h" is usualy inserted before or after the last consonant. 

Mettä = forest

Methään = into (the) forest


The H comes almost allways after

K

T

M

It usualy comes before

L

For other letters it can be very random, and can also be on both sides of these letters.


Vowel harmony.

There are 3 classes of vowels

Back vowels O U A

Middle vowels E I

Front vowels Ö Ä Y


The back and front vowels can not be close to each other and that is why some cases can have many endings. E and I can be anywhere.




More coming soon



Questions

in meänkieli, questions are generaly made with the ending "kos/kös", but you can also use question words for more complicated questions, such as "jos(pa)" 'if', "ku(i)nka" 'how', "miks(i)" 'why',  "missä" 'where'. "kukka" 'who (plural)' "ken/kuka" 'who (singular)', "joka" 'which', "jokka" 'which (plural)



missä sie olet = where are you

oonkos se fuorela? = is it at the mountain

ootkos sie Styyre? = are you Styyre?

Hunteeraatkos sie sitä = are you thinking about it

siekös olet sielä? = is it you there?





Sounds

Meänkieli has some sounds not used in finnish, the letter combination "sj" makes the same sound as english sh and the letter combination tj makes the same sound as english ch.

"fynksjyyni" = funktion

"tjatti" = chat



"to have"

Meänkieli usualy uses the same word for "to be" and to have, but the word before "olla" changes when you want to indicate posession, there is also a word for "to own" which is "omistaa"


minula oon = i have

mie oon = i am

Sinula oon = you have

sie olet = you are

hä(ä)nelä oon = he/she has

hä(ä)n oon = he/she is

meilä oon = we have

met olema = we are

teilä oon = you (plural) have

tet oletta = you (plural) are

heilä oon = they have

het oon = they are


also for the word "Omistaa"

mie omistan

sie omistat

hä(ä)n omistaa

met omistama

tet omistatta

het omistava(t)